Total War Rome 2 Auxiliary Map
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The Gauls and the Romans had significantly different military strategies. The Roman army was a professional army armed and outfitted by the state, extremely disciplined, and kept standing between conflicts. However, the professional army consisted mostly of heavy infantry; any auxiliary units were fielded from the less disciplined Roman allies, which as the war progressed would include some Gauls. By comparison, the Gauls were an irregular and less disciplined fighting force. Individual Gauls outfitted themselves; thus, while wealthy Gauls were well equipped and rivalled the Roman soldiers, the average Gallic warrior was poorly equipped compared to a Roman. This was not an inherent disadvantage: unlike the Romans, the Gauls were a warrior culture. They prized acts of bravery and individual courage; frequent raiding of neighboring tribes kept their fighting skills sharp. Compared to the Romans, the Gauls carried longer swords and had far superior cavalry. The Gauls were generally taller than the Romans (a fact that seems to have embarrassed the Romans) and this combined with their longer swords gave them a reach advantage in combat. Both sides used archers and slingers. Little is known about Gallic battle strategy, and the effectiveness of Gallic slingers and archers is unknown. What is known indicates that battle strategy varied between tribes, although engagement in pitched battle was frequent, to prove bravery. Not all tribes engaged the Romans directly, as Rome was a formidable enemy. The Gauls frequently used attrition warfare against them. While the Gauls had much more flair in combat (such as fighting in intricately decorated armor, or even in the nude), the superior discipline and formation of the Romans, combined with uniformly excellent equipment, generally gave them an advantage in hand-to-hand fighting.
Caesar had four veteran legions under his direct command initially: Legio VII, Legio VIII, Legio IX Hispana, and Legio X. As he had been governor of Hispania Ulterior in 61 BC and had campaigned successfully with them against the Lusitanians, Caesar knew most, perhaps even all, of the legions personally. He also had the legal authority to levy additional legions and auxiliary units as he saw fit. The assignment of the province that comprises what is now Northern Italy was helpful to his ambitions: the Po Valley and the adjoining regions had large numbers of Roman citizens, who could be enticed to sign up for legionary service.
A need for prestige more than tactical concerns likely determined Caesar's campaigns in 55 BC, due to Pompey and Crassus' consulship. On the one hand, they were Caesar's political allies, and Crassus's son had fought under him the year before. But they were also his rivals, and had formidable reputations (Pompey was a great general, and Crassus was fabulously wealthy). Since the consuls could easily sway and buy public opinion, Caesar needed to stay in the public eye. His solution was to cross two water bodies no Roman army had attempted before: the Rhine and the English Channel. Crossing the Rhine was a consequence of Germanic/Celtic unrest. The Suebi had recently forced the Celtic Usipetes and Tencteri from their lands, who resultingly had crossed the Rhine in search of a new home. Caesar, however, had denied their earlier request to settle in Gaul, and the issue turned to war. The Celtic tribes sent out a cavalry force of 800 against a Roman auxiliary force of 5,000 made up of Gauls, and won a surprising victory. Caesar retaliated by attacking the defenseless Celtic camp, and slaughtering the men, women, and children. Caesar claims he killed 430,000 people in the camp. Modern historians find this number impossibly high (see historiography below), but it is apparent that Caesar killed a great many Celts. So cruel were his actions, his enemies in the Senate wished to prosecute him for war crimes once his tenure as governor was up and he was no longer immune from prosecution. After the massacre, Caesar led the first Roman army across the Rhine in a lightning campaign that lasted just 18 days.
During the campaign against the Usipetes and the Tenceri, Caesar makes the incredible claim that the Romans attacked a camp of 430,000, their victory was total, they lost not a single soldier, and that upon losing the tribes committed mass suicide. Henige finds this entire story impossible, as did Ferdinand Lot, writing in 1947. Lot was one of the first modern authors who directly questioned the validity of these numbers, finding a fighting force of 430,000 to have been unbelievable for the time. Gilliver also considers 430,000 to be absurd, but does note that it was likely the Romans killed tens of thousands, and finds the claim of zero Roman losses possible. Still, the action to annihilate a non-combatant camp was exceptionally brutal, even by Roman standards. Ben Kiernan, while noting the 430,000 to be exaggerated, otherwise accepts Caesar's account and describes the action as genocide.
The auxiliary verb may, when rendered in small capitals, indicates optional or discretionary behavior. The statement "An implementation may do X" implies that it is implementation-dependent whether or not it does X.
The auxiliary verb should, when rendered in small capitals, indicates desirable or recommended behavior. The statement "An implementation should do X" implies that it is desirable to do X, but implementations may choose to do otherwise if this is judged appropriate.
The integer-part-grouping-positions is a sequence of integers representing the positions of grouping separators within the integer part of the sub-picture. For each grouping-separatorXP31 character that appears within the integer part of the sub-picture, this sequence contains an integer that is equal to the total number of ·optional digit character· and ·decimal digit family· characters that appear within the integer part of the sub-picture and to the right of the grouping-separatorXP31 character.
The fractional-part-grouping-positions is a sequence of integers representing the positions of grouping separators within the fractional part of the sub-picture. For each grouping-separatorXP31 character that appears within the fractional part of the sub-picture, this sequence contains an integer that is equal to the total number of ·optional digit character· and ·decimal digit family· characters that appear within the fractional part of the sub-picture and to the left of the grouping-separatorXP31 character.
The mantissa is converted (if necessary) to an xs:decimal value, using an implementation of xs:decimal that imposes no limits on the totalDigits or fractionDigits facets. If there are several such values that are numerically equal to the mantissa (bearing in mind that if the mantissa is an xs:double or xs:float, the comparison will be done by converting the decimal value back to an xs:double or xs:float), the one that is chosen should be one with the smallest possible number of digits not counting leading or trailing zeroes (whether significant or insignificant). For example, 1.0 is preferred to 0.9999999999, and 100000000 is preferred to 100000001. This value is then rounded so that it uses no more than maximum-fractional-part-size digits in its fractional part. The rounded number is defined to be the result of converting the mantissa to an xs:decimal value, as described above, and then calling the function fn:round-half-to-even with this converted number as the first argument and the maximum-fractional-part-size as the second argument, again with no limits on the totalDigits or fractionDigits in the result.
The following comparison operators are defined on the [XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes Second Edition] duration datatypes. Each operator takes two operands of the same type and returns an xs:boolean result. As discussed in [XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes Second Edition], the order relation on xs:duration is a partial order rather than a total order. For this reason, only equality is defined on xs:duration. A full complement of comparison and arithmetic functions are defined on the two subtypes of duration described in 8.1 Two totally ordered subtypes of duration which do have a total order.
Fatigue is extremely important in Ancient Empires as it ties in directly with morale. Fatigue penalties can be severe, such as a totally exhausted unit which will face -8 to its morale, which can be more than the total morale of some units. (See morale for values) This may seem too harsh especially coming from other total war experiences, but this is historical and realistic to ancient combat and human psychology. You have to imagine you have just been forced to run 5 miles, you are completely drained and only want to drop to the floor, and then you are expected to fight in combat, for untrained conscripted levies, this is too much and they will likely just leave. Higher morale units will hold, but will be much easier to route. It should be noted that units with the "Highly trained" Attribute will only face half penalties from fatigue, such as -4 from exhaustion rather than -8. Exhaustion is an extreme example and is only achieved if your unit runs across most of the battlefield or fights for a very long time, most of the time your units will be within Active to Very Tired.
In total, Stein made four expeditions to northwest China. He mainly spent his time along the southern edges of the Tarim Basin where he explored the sites of the Khotan oases, Niya, Miran and Loulan. He also conducted excavations at the military fortifications near the town of Dunhuang, in addition to his stay at the Mogao Caves. Along the north of the Tarim Basin, he collected objects from sites including Shorchuk and Astana, Turfan.
Gettysburg was incorporated as a Borough under the Pennsylvania Constitution on March 10, 1806. The Borough's first election took place on May 7, 1806. The borough's first Borough Council meeting took place at the home of William McClellan on May 21, 1806. The total amount of taxes collected in 1807 was $577.811/2 - which includes the dog tax. The Treasurer would collect all taxes and would receive 21/2% of all taxes collected. The Borough's first Council and staff follows. 2b1af7f3a8